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190 General Notes. 

on one side. If it is placed upward, the respiration of the embryo 
is hindered. The embryoscope can be turned up at any moment, 
and kept upright for five minutes at a time without injury to the 
embryo. 

With a little practice, the whole process of arming an egg with 
the embryoscope may be completed in from six to eight minutes. 

The embryoscope is well adapted for purposes of class-demon- 
stration, for investigating the growth of the various parts of the 
embryo, and the physiological processes during embryonic life, as 
the action of the heart, movements of the body, etc. It is indis- 
pensable to him who would study the effects of external agents 
upon the embryos of warm-blooded animals; and must be of great 
service where it is required to determine the precise stage of devel- 
opment before removing the embryo from the egg. It has been 
found useful in studying the formation of double embryos. Fene- 
strated eggs have been successfully incubated up to the thirteenth 
day, and it is probable that under favorable conditions the embryos 
of such eggs would reach maturity. 

On the fifth day, it is still easy to bring the embryos under the 
window. On the sixth and seventh days, it is more difficult. At 
this period the change in the position of the embryo, which requires 
from five to ten minutes, should take place in the incubator. 

After the eighth day, the embryo cannot be brought under the 
window. If it be necessary to determine whether such an egg or an 
older one still lives, we have only to leave the egg for several hours 
in the incubator with the window directed upwards a little, after 
which, by strong reflected light, one may readily see the blood 
circulating through the channels of the vascular area. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. — Sept. 
20, 1887. — Mr. G. H. Parker gave an historical sketch of investi- 
gations upon the eyes of arthropods. Grenadier's theory of the 
hypodermal origin of the retina, developed by involution, has been 
borne out by later studies. From a study of the nerve distribu- 
tion, the speaker believed the three-layered eye to be evolved from 
that with one layer. 

Mr. Meehan stated that in Mesembryanthemum and similar 
plants, the glands of which develop in inverse proportion to the 
roots, chemical analysis sometimes determines the presence of more 
nitrogen than can be obtained from the soil. It was suggested that 
the glands absorbed the gas from the atmosphere. 

Mr. H. T. Cresson exhibited specimens of prehistoric implements 
collected from beds surrounding what had probably been pile dwell- 
ings on the mud flats of the Delaware, near Naaman's Creek. 



Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 191 

Professor Heilprin described the finding of the remains of a mas- 
todon near Pemberton, N. J. 

Oct. 18, 1887. — Dr. H. C. McCook gave an account of an Amer- 
ican tarantula which must have been at least seven years old at 
death, and stated that a queen of the fuscous ant, in the possession 
of Sir J. Lubbock, died at the age of thirteen years. 

Dr. Leidy described a collection of fossil bones from Archer, 
Fla., and characterized Hippotherium plicatih, from teeth and ankle 
bones, as a species of horse new to science. 

Professor Ryder described a ring-like prolongation of the pla- 
centa in embryo mice and rats, as indicating the descent of these 
animals from lower types on which the placenta was zonary. 

Oct. 25, 1887. — Professor J. A. Ryder stated his conviction that 
the organ in the head of fishes, supposed by Wiedersheim to be the 
homologue of the pineal gland, was really a portion of the lateral 
line system, and thus derived from the skin. 

Mr. Woolman described the deposits pierced by an artesian well, 
1,100 feet deep, at Atlantic City. Thirty-one species, including 
three sharks and a crocodile, were the fossil harvest. 

Professor Heilprin stated that Perna maxillata found in the above 
well at a depth of about 800 feet, in dark clay, indicated the base 
of the miocene, while the Turritella found above indicated the 
middle miocene. The speaker and his class had recently collected 
several species new to the miocene fauna of New Jersey, including 
three new to science. 

Dr. Kcenig described a new variety of unisilicate of manganese, 
and proposed for it the name " Bementite." 

Dr. Leidy stated his belief, founded on examination of numerous 
examples, that the brown hydra of North America is identical 
with that of Europe ; and Professor Ryder stated that the marine 
parasitic infusoria of the American coast were the same as those 
of Europe. 

Dr. Cheston Morris described certain Dorsetshire sheep which 
seemed to be intermediate between the ordinary sheep and the goat. 

Nov. 1, 1887.— Dr. H. C. McCook described the habits of For- 
mica rufa, their mounds, their straight roads, etc. Atta fervens, a 
Texan ant, constructs straight underground trails, sometimes for a 
length of 448 feet. 

Dr. Dolley spoke of the native cotton of Harbor Island, one of 
the Bahamas. It is of a reddish buff tint, and is not attacked by 
the cotton worm. 

Professor Heilprin exhibited the mastodon remains found at 
Pemberton, N. J. 

Nov. 15, 1887. — Professor Ryder described certain improvements 
in preparing tissues for the microscope. Soaking in celloidin and 
then in chloroform enabled the most fragile structures to be 
manipulated. 



192 General Notes. 

Nov. 22, 1887.— Dr. H. C. McCook described Oyrtophorabifurca, 
a new orb-weaving spider from Florida. 

Dec. 6, 1887. — Mr. Meehan called attention to the prolific 
growth of interaxial tubers obtained from Dioscorea eburnea, a 
Chinese plant. 

Dec. 13, 1887.— Mr. W. H. Dall mentioned the finding of the 
parasite Leucochloridum paradoxum in a Western species of 
Succinea. 

Jan. 24, 1888. — Professor W. P. "Wilson stated that the appa- 
ratus for catching and assimilating insect food is much more effi- 
cient in Sarracenia variolaris than in C. purpurea. 

Dr. Horn exhibited a collection of May beetles, comprehending 
79 out of the 81 species known north of Mexico. 

Professor J. A. Ryder stated that the manner of cleavage of 
the yolk in the eggs of lampreys and Batrachia differs from that 
which obtains in osseous fishes, birds and reptiles. 

Biological Society of Washington, 117th Eegular Meeting. 
— Dec. 17, 1887. — The following communications were presented 
— Mr. C. L. Hopkins, "Notes Relative to the Sense of Smell 
in Buzzards ; " Dr. Cooper Curtice, " The Timber Line of Pike's 
Peak;" Mr. Charles D. Walcott, exhibited a section of a fos- 
sil Endoceras over eight feet in length, with remarks on the same; 
Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, " On the Extinction of the Great Northern 
Sea Cow;" Dr. C. Hart Merriam, "Description of a New Mouse 
from the Great Plains." 

118th Regular Meeting.— Dec. 31st, 1887.— The following 
communications were read: — Mr. W. J. McGee, "The Over- 
lapping Habitats of Sturnella magna, and S. neglecta in Iowa;" 
Dr. C. Hart Merriam, " Description of a new Field Mouse from 
Western Dakota;" Mr. W. B. Barrows, "The Shape of the Bill 
in Snail-eating Birds;" Mr. H. Justin Roddy, "Feeding Habits 
of some Young Raptores."